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Vi propongo tre articoli. 1. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Jan 6;6:2 (Quest'articolo è gratuitamente disponibile online: qui) BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. METHODS: Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 +/- 1.3 y; 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm; 88.6 +/- 12.1 kg; 17.6 +/- 3.3% body fat) underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP), commercially marketed as Redline Extreme(R) or 120 ml of a placebo (PL) that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO) and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. RESULTS: Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 +/- 7.4 versus 51.9 +/- 7.4, respectively) and percent of targets struck (71.9 +/- 10.5% versus 66.8 +/- 10.9%, respectively). No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 +/- 0.5 versus 3.1 +/- 0.5) and focus (3.8 +/- 0.5 versus 3.3 +/- 0.7) were significantly higher during SUP compared to PL, respectively. In addition, a trend towards an increase in average alertness (p = 0.06) was seen in SUP compared to P. CONCLUSION: Results indicate a significant increase in reaction performance, with no effect on anaerobic power performance. In addition, ingestion of this supplement significantly improves subjective feelings of focus and energy in male strength/power athletes. 2. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008 May-Jun;48(3):e55-63; quiz e64-7 OBJECTIVE: To describe benefits and adverse effects associated with the consumption of energy drinks. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted using Medline, IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), EMBASE, and MANTIS; databases such as Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Natural Standard, ALTMEDEX, and AltHealthWatch; and Google (range 1980 to September 2007). Search terms included energy drink, Red Bull, caffeine, glucose, ginseng, guarana, taurine, and bitter orange. DATA SYNTHESIS: Most energy drinks contain natural products such as guarana, ginseng, and taurine. As much as 80 to 300 mg of caffeine and 35 grams of processed sugar per 8-ounce serving are commonly present in energy drinks such as Cocaine, Pimp Juice, Red Bull, and Spike Shooter. No reports were identified of negative effects associated with taurine, ginseng, and guarana used in the amounts found in most energy drinks. Commonly reported adverse effects seen with caffeine in the quantities present in most energy drinks are insomnia, nervousness, headache, and tachycardia. Four documented case reports of caffeine-associated deaths were found, as well as four separate cases of seizures associated with the consumption of energy drinks. CONCLUSION: The amounts of guarana, taurine, and ginseng found in popular energy drinks are far below the amounts expected to deliver either therapeutic benefits or adverse events. However, caffeine and sugar are present in amounts known to cause a variety of adverse health effects. 3. Influence of energy drinks and alcohol on post-exercise heart rate recovery and heart rate variability. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009 Jan;29(1):74-80. Epub 2008 Nov 7. (Quest'articolo è gratuitamente disponibile online: qui) BACKGROUND: Media have anecdotally reported that drinking energy drinks in combination with alcohol and exercise could cause sudden cardiac death. This study investigated changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate variability after intake of an energy drink, taken in combination with alcohol and exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers (five men and five women aged 19-30) performed maximal bicycle ergometer exercise for 30 min after: (i) intake of 0.75 l of an energy drink mixed with alcohol; (ii) intake of energy drink; and, (iii) no intake of any drink. ECG was continuously recorded for analysis of heart rate variability and heart rate recovery. RESULTS: No subject developed any clinically significant arrhythmias. Post-exercise recovery in heart rate and heart rate variability was slower after the subjects consumed energy drink and alcohol before exercise, than after exercise alone. CONCLUSION: The healthy subjects developed blunted cardiac autonomic modulation after exercising when they had consumed energy drinks mixed with alcohol. Although they did not develop any significant arrhythmia, individuals predisposed to arrhythmia by congenital or other rhythm disorders could have an increased risk for malignant cardiac arrhythmia in similar situations.
Vi propongo tre articoli. 1. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Jan 6;6:2 (Quest'articolo è gratuitamente disponibile online: qui) BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. METHODS: Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 +/- 1.3 y; 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm; 88.6 +/- 12.1 kg; 17.6 +/- 3.3% body fat) underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP), commercially marketed as Redline Extreme(R) or 120 ml of a placebo (PL) that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO) and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. RESULTS: Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 +/- 7.4 versus 51.9 +/- 7.4, respectively) and percent of targets struck (71.9 +/- 10.5% versus 66.8 +/- 10.9%, respectively). No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 +/- 0.5 versus 3.1 +/- 0.5) and focus (3.8 +/- 0.5 versus 3.3 +/- 0.7) were significantly higher during SUP compared to PL, respectively. In addition, a trend towards an increase in average alertness (p = 0.06) was seen in SUP compared to P. CONCLUSION: Results indicate a significant increase in reaction performance, with no effect on anaerobic power performance. In addition, ingestion of this supplement significantly improves subjective feelings of focus and energy in male strength/power athletes. 2. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008 May-Jun;48(3):e55-63; quiz e64-7 OBJECTIVE: To describe benefits and adverse effects associated with the consumption of energy drinks. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted using Medline, IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), EMBASE, and MANTIS; databases such as Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Natural Standard, ALTMEDEX, and AltHealthWatch; and Google (range 1980 to September 2007). Search terms included energy drink, Red Bull, caffeine, glucose, ginseng, guarana, taurine, and bitter orange. DATA SYNTHESIS: Most energy drinks contain natural products such as guarana, ginseng, and taurine. As much as 80 to 300 mg of caffeine and 35 grams of processed sugar per 8-ounce serving are commonly present in energy drinks such as Cocaine, Pimp Juice, Red Bull, and Spike Shooter. No reports were identified of negative effects associated with taurine, ginseng, and guarana used in the amounts found in most energy drinks. Commonly reported adverse effects seen with caffeine in the quantities present in most energy drinks are insomnia, nervousness, headache, and tachycardia. Four documented case reports of caffeine-associated deaths were found, as well as four separate cases of seizures associated with the consumption of energy drinks. CONCLUSION: The amounts of guarana, taurine, and ginseng found in popular energy drinks are far below the amounts expected to deliver either therapeutic benefits or adverse events. However, caffeine and sugar are present in amounts known to cause a variety of adverse health effects. 3. Influence of energy drinks and alcohol on post-exercise heart rate recovery and heart rate variability. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009 Jan;29(1):74-80. Epub 2008 Nov 7. (Quest'articolo è gratuitamente disponibile online: qui) BACKGROUND: Media have anecdotally reported that drinking energy drinks in combination with alcohol and exercise could cause sudden cardiac death. This study investigated changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate variability after intake of an energy drink, taken in combination with alcohol and exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers (five men and five women aged 19-30) performed maximal bicycle ergometer exercise for 30 min after: (i) intake of 0.75 l of an energy drink mixed with alcohol; (ii) intake of energy drink; and, (iii) no intake of any drink. ECG was continuously recorded for analysis of heart rate variability and heart rate recovery. RESULTS: No subject developed any clinically significant arrhythmias. Post-exercise recovery in heart rate and heart rate variability was slower after the subjects consumed energy drink and alcohol before exercise, than after exercise alone. CONCLUSION: The healthy subjects developed blunted cardiac autonomic modulation after exercising when they had consumed energy drinks mixed with alcohol. Although they did not develop any significant arrhythmia, individuals predisposed to arrhythmia by congenital or other rhythm disorders could have an increased risk for malignant cardiac arrhythmia in similar situations.
modificato Jan 21 '09 a 8:20 pm
 
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Un'altra cosa: un altro studio sulle bevande sportive: ________________________________________________ 30 minuti prima di eseguire degli esercizi con una sfera ergometrica (o sul tappeto), a 29 sportivi professionisti di sesso maschile e femminile è stata somministrata una bevanda sportiva con fruttosio, trigliceridi a catena media e aminoacidi o un composto di placebo. Per ciascun atleta sono stati valutati il consumo massimo di ossigeno (VO2max) e il tempo di resistenza prima che sopraggiungesse la fatica. I ricercatori hanno registrato parametri migliori negli sportivi che hanno assunto la bevanda sportiva.

*Byars, A. et. al., The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7:12, Marzo 2010 (LINK) RIFERIMENTI: prozis.it
Un'altra cosa: un altro studio sulle bevande sportive: ________________________________________________ 30 minuti prima di eseguire degli esercizi con una sfera ergometrica (o sul tappeto), a 29 sportivi professionisti di sesso maschile e femminile è stata somministrata una bevanda sportiva con fruttosio, trigliceridi a catena media e aminoacidi o un composto di placebo. Per ciascun atleta sono stati valutati il consumo massimo di ossigeno (VO2max) e il tempo di resistenza prima che sopraggiungesse la fatica. I ricercatori hanno registrato parametri migliori negli sportivi che hanno assunto la bevanda sportiva. *Byars, A. et. al., The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7:12, Marzo 2010 (LINK) RIFERIMENTI: prozis.it
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